Neuroethics is usually thought of as consisting of two traditions: the neuroscience of moral judgment, and the ethics of neuroscientific practice. Attempts to draw philosophical and ethical conclusions from the neuroscience of moral judgment have usually been thought of as falling into the first tradition. But this sort of work—the philosophy of the neuroscience of moral judgment—is sufficiently complex, and encounters challenges sufficiently unique, to be treated as its own, third tradition of neuroethics. This article provides a comprehensive view of the goals, methods, assumptions, and viewpoints in the third tradition of neuroethics, addresses several prominent challenges in it, and suggests guidelines for overcoming those challenges. The article is forthcoming in the Journal of the American Philosophical Association.